How to Find the Right UHF Antenna for Your 4×4?

We figured this is the right time for us to talk about the UHF antenna. Beyond the aesthetics, finding the right type of antenna involves some thought as to what you need it for.

For example, varying dBi ratings in aerials can also be used for different terrains. This dBi rating could, to a certain extent, measure the size and thickness of the aerial you want to obtain.

Gone are the days when almost every 4X4 you come across seemed to have a black strip of fibreglass hanging off from the bullbar? Sometimes they look like a fishing rod that is emptied of its copper cable trappings.

Back in the day, they seemed to be the all-season aerial you could get. Although they operate on a lower frequency, mainly 27MHz, it was predominantly one-size-fits-all with them.


With the arrival and testing and experimentation of UHF broadcasts (around 477 MHz), a myriad of aerials intended for use in incessantly changing contexts became accessible. The use of UHF antenna offers better bandwidth (data and voice quality). 

But since they work at a higher frequency, it renders the radio waves to pierce through to the ionosphere. If that happens they will make their way out into space sans the usual ‘bounce back’ that is normally observed with VHF (27MHz).

What is dBi in light of radio signals?

Picture an invisible doughnut hovering just right above your 4-wheel drive aerial. Except for maybe the small hole, the doughnut is massive, and it doesn’t have flour or cinnamon. 

This doughnut would be stretched vertically or horizontally depending on the aerial dBi rating — a higher dBi signifies a flatter but more expansive doughnut but with a lower dBi which signifies that it is going to be higher albeit skinnier.

What are the Different Aerials? 

For this UHF radio guide, assessing aerial gain is usually performed in dBd or dBi for consistency. It makes it easier for us to understand. Besides, the majority of aerials are promoted with just the dBi grade. 

The term dBi means “decibels in relation to an isotropic radiator,” where the number is really what matters to us. Ponder upon dBi in aerials, picture that in your mind as a lantern with a focusable beam, together with your 5W UHF unit as either the LED or bulb while your aerial will act as the focusing ring. 

The torch will continue to deliver 5W, but if you intensify the beam to around say 9 dBi and it travels a long distance.

Only a small section on the other side of the camp is highlighted, but it will keep you from seeing your feet. You can now have a view of the next door’s camp if you have the focus ring in another way to say, for instance, 3 dBi. To put it briefly, this is the dBi. 

Gain: 6 to 9 dBi 

These aerials are usually made with a broom handle and are frequently very long. They’re perfect for use for long-distance travel on open fields as well as on roads with flat ground.

With its long and wide doughnut, it’ll toss far and wide with line-of-sight. However, by putting a house, hill, or woodland along its path, you are likely to have communication difficulties.

Medium Gain: 3-6 dBi 

Traditionally, they come with wrappings of a copper wire or the 3-feet stainless-steel stick highlighted in the middle by a ‘pigs tail‘. At any point within this dBi range can provide a good balance of spectrum and line-of-sight hindrances. 

This range’s signal output would be like a doughnut in the middle – not even that flat, but just not perfectly round either.

 0-3 dBi is a low unity gain. 

These are more commonly used in urban areas but are taken advantage of as well in the alpine/mountainous regions. The part of the name Unity essentially signifies that the aerial path emanates uniformly across all directions. 

wireless technology

They’re usually stubby and short and normally come with a thermal coating. This type of aerial will consistently push a signal across trees, mountains, houses, and a host of other similar obstructions – sad to say that it will be at the cost of range. 

They come with an almost perfectly round doughnut, and it will rebound as high as it can throw signals horizontally along 60-story buildings or across highlands. 

Wrapping Up!

So, depending on where you are heading with your four-wheeling and what you need from your UHF antenna, make this guide as your reference to achieve the best reception imaginable when you’re on the highways.


What Type of Ink Does a 3D Printing Machine Use?

The global industry of 3D printing has a crucial role in ushering us to the modern age. It holds for us the key to the future. Expert minds see and understand how this groundbreaking manufacturing technology is transforming business and global commerce these days. 3-dimensional printing, also known as additive manufacturing, allows users to virtually print anything, from buildings to appliances.  

There is one thing about this manufacturing technique though that most people from the manufacturing sector are not certain about if it needs an ink of some kind. If it does, then they would naturally want to know everything about it. Only then can they start to contemplate integrating the method into their manufacturing operations.

Video Credit to: Fast Company

Does A 3D Printer Machine Use Ink?

Yes, 3-dimensional printing machines require ink to produce or print out an object. There is now a specialized form of ink intended for use by 3D printers. So far this is the latest development about the 3D printing space. Scientists fondly call this latest invention they’ve made as “flink”, which means to say that the ink itself is an active living ink.

Unlike the past generation of 3D printers, which made use of powdery metals and plastics to make ink, this groundbreaking invention harnesses the power of bacteria for printing purposes.  

This technology is laying the foundations for tiny biochemical factories. And it is safe to say that this kind of 3D ink is teeming with life simply because it is bacteria-based. In other words, 3D printer machines can now create living components that can help in degrading toxins.  

In addition, these printed living materials can potentially promote living organ transplants to benefit the human body or its systems. The elements that the medical community used before in place of ink can only help in the production of anything artificial, such as artificial bones. It can be taken advantage of in the production of, say, super-strong steel. 

However, with this particular type of 3D ink, it  can print any kind of bacteria-based material. . This type of 3D printer ink made it possible for researchers to print out any kind of 3D structure they need or require, and carry out the entire process in just one single blow. 

However, there is a catch here. The output you will get will depend upon the species of bacteria you will use for this purpose. 

Moreover, the process you will use here will significantly influence the rate of success in producing your required biological material. Such materials are capable of breaking down toxic substances or even high-purity cellulose which can be used as well in the production of biomedical appliances.  

What Material is a 3D Printer Ink Made Of?

The new generation of 3D printing machines that will be flooding the market soon is derived from different kinds of live bacteria. Every single one of them is offering different functions. They produce different saturations of bacteria to help in the production of a wide range of objects with different physical properties. 


In addition, the ink structure could be derived from a certain kind of biocompatible hydrogel. This may include hyaluronic acid, pyrogenic silica, and long-chain sugar molecules.  

These scientists would mix the culture compound to help the bacterial ink propagate. Later on, the process will be providing for the bacteria all the elements they require to thrive and grow. This way, when these researchers make use of the hydrogel as a base, they would be able to add the bacteria that possess the appropriate spectrum of properties they require. 

The result of which would allow them to 3D print any structure. But during the ink’s development process, the researcher must ascertain that the ink he will be using is liquid enough. Otherwise, it will have a hard time in passing through the 3D printer machine’s nozzle. 

Moreover, in case that the ink becomes too stiff to flow out, it renders the material difficult to move about. Besides, it will also limit cellulose secretion. 

Wrapping up!

With all these positive developments taking place now in the 3D printing sphere, it is making it easier to come up with intricate structures in a faster, smarter, and more economical manner. 

For the longest time, the creation and development of complex structures were unimaginable in the recent past. However, with 3-dimensional printing technology, things have become a lot easier and projects now can be handled in a more efficient manner. 


Wide Range of Applications from Elo Touch Screen Australia

Elo offers industry-leading touch parts for a broad variety of uses from clinical to pc gaming and every little thing in-between.

Elo Touch Display Australia Applications

Industrial and Instrumentation

Elo’s touchscreens as well as controllers are developed for industrial functions and can work in a size of environments. Numerous commercial applications function in the high warm or severe cold; a touchscreen that would work correctly in these extreme settings is called for. Elo’s wide range of sizes as well as modern technologies makes sure that a touch interface could be created to withstand the difficulties of industrial applications and the rough settings where these items are released.



The medical equipment market is defined by high dependability, exact design, long lifecycle, and quality manufacturing. Elo has been serving the medical requirement for years as well as recognizes the efficiency attributes and specialized qualifications required for clinical tool applications. Elo’s ruggedized touchscreens as well as controller items have been effectively integrated with these sensitive and mission-critical functions that have been deployed all over the globe.

Such capacitive touchscreens might offer an upgraded, contemporary design to clinical touchscreen remedies that are high performing and extremely resilient. TouchPro touchscreens resist liquids as well as can be frequently wiped tidy over prolonged periods with no obvious wear or efficiency deterioration.


Navigation and marine systems are subjected to multiple settings. They need a touchscreen option that will work properly in too expensive or low temperatures and differing humidity concentrations and after expanded sunshine direct exposure. Elo’s TouchPro forecasted capacitive touchscreen items are preferably suited for severe setting applications due to their durability, efficiency, and clearness. When TouchPro touchscreens are incorporated utilizing Elo’s optical bonding solutions, the client is offered with a durable touch option unsusceptible wetness as well as completely suited for marine applications.

Video gaming

The pc gaming industry is remaining to advance, as well as groundbreaking new games call for brand-new gaming machines. The setting in which many game machines flourish requires a durable user interface that can endure dirt as well as debris and provide a side that would not be harmed if an individual spills fluid on the display. Lots of makers lie within a countertop, as well as a zero-bezel layout will aid with the enclosure. The zero-bezel layout combined with an all-glass touchscreen building allows a limited and also sturdy area that will certainly not be harmed by spilling and also constant usage. Elo has a touchscreen solution for virtually any type of pc gaming setting as well as price factor.


Designing as well as producing Factor of Sale (POS) stations is specifically tough because of the environment in which they are needed to run. POS terminals are released in places with varying environmental conditions and based on consistent as well as extreme use. Regular client requirements consist of extended photo retention, continual power on, low glare, and high accuracy stylus efficiency for trademark capture. The factor of Sale is an instead wide classification of products. Varying from signature catch tools to exterior ATMs, POS terminals need to increase sturdiness and readability to prolong the duration of the tool and be able to operate properly in various environments.

Kiosk/Self Solution Automation

Elo touch screen Australia familiarity has constantly represented high quality, dependability, and advancement worldwide, with more than 25 million installments. The capability to hold up against constant usage, resist scraping, and boost optical transparency makes Elo’s touchscreens the ideal selection for an interactive stand. Elo can offer touch solutions that would work well in extreme settings and operate in a large array of temperatures.

Industrial Engineering Safety Equipment Technology

Practical Applications of CNC Cutting Machine

CNC cutting machines belong to the most ubiquitous pieces of equipment today because they can be found in almost all industries. You see them practically being used even by small scale manufacturing firms up to major players in the industry. Food manufacturing, agricultural products, textile industry, electronic parts, and equipment, all these sectors are taking good advantage of the CNC profile cutter in their production teams. 

As we see it, there is no aspect of modern manufacturing that is not benefiting from the use of a CNC machining center. Anyone who is planning to embark on a business venture in the manufacturing industry ought to know and understand exactly how CNC machines can be of help to your company and how you can utilize it to advance your business interest. 

The extensive use of CNC machines in many industries has brought about increased demand for professional CNC programmers. To meet this growing demand for CNC programmers, many technical schools in the country are now offering educational programs that will help interested students learn everything about CNC machines, including CNC programming itself.  

Below are some of the many industries that are enjoying the benefits of CNC machining.  

Industries for removing metal

This line of business is involved in taking away metal from raw material and this would include the automotive industries. They use plasmacam Australia technology to make gears, shafts, and several other important parts.

The task of removing metal is usually carried out by different machine tools such as a milling machine, lathe, boring machine, reamer, shaping machine, and many others. These machines are normally handled by operators, but there are now CNC versions for these types of machines are used extensively.  

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) Industry

The EDM machines can take away the metal component of an object and does this efficiently by making sparks intended to burn the metal. EDM machines come in two types with the CNC automation — the Wire EDM and the Vertical EDM. 

In Vertical EDM, you need to have the cavity size that you are supposed to make in the job. You also need to have an electrode of the shape, whereas the purpose of the Wire EDM is to make the punch and the dies set combinations. They are being utilized in industries were fabrication is performed.  

Other Industries where CNC machines are used

Did you know that the popular CNC cutting machine is also practically and extensively used even in the woodworking space? It is used to carry out several operations such as routing and drilling. 

CNC cutting technology has also made its way to engraving and lettering systems. Even the electrical industry is taking advantage of CNC machining with their CNC terminal location, CNC coil winders, and soldering machines.  

Regardless of the industry, you will try to involve yourself in, you’d certainly find many other types of CNC machines in action. Industry experts and insiders both agree in saying that milestones in the manufacturing were only made possible due to the advancements we have in the CNC technology.


What is the Proper Way to Install GPS Antennas to Your Car?

When installing GPS antennas to your car, there are a few simple rules to keep in mind. This one’s specially useful to those vehicles that come with a navigation receiver, the in-dash type. Before anything else, what rule of thumb that you need to follow here? Never make any attempt to make any kind of physical alteration to the antenna itself, including cutting any of its parts.

A GPS type of antenna will work at their best and will deliver your expected functions the most if you will keep  them in constant reach with GPS satellites. They are qualified man-made satellites, and are designed to orbit the globe  from outer space. These installations in the great beyond will provide the data being required by these antennas.

Or else, the information, whatever that may be that you want to obtain will have a questionable integrity. It may not be highly accurate at all, and thus it can’t be relied on even if you have it right at your fingertips. This is the underlying reason why you need to have them mounted in such a way that its signal will not be compromised due to some kind of interference.

A GPS external type of antenna is ideally mounted on the dash, near the top of it, particularly on the underside. Satellite signals nowadays are very strong, which implies that we have sufficient amounts and thus should be able to maintain a reliable reception. Besides, it is also one of the several reasons why the antenna can be kept out of the line of sight.

Wire Connections

Check out your receivers and determine if they come with a video screen. If that is the case, chances are high that you need to have extra wire connections which may not be as necessary in a non-touchscreen stereo. We need to take a closer look at this, as follows.  

Reverse Signal Wire Connections

There are also several navigation systems that will let you connect to your vehicle’s reverse signal wire or the backup light.This connection acts as an indicator of your car’s navigation system during a travel or movement in an opposite direction. If you fail to hook up this wire, there is a meager chance that your vehicle direction can be tracked properly and accurately.  This is where an external gps antenna would come into picture, to help it deliver its designated functions. 

In some occasions, you will find the reverse wire situated either under the dash or under the hood. If you have this kind of scenario, we encourage you to refer to the dedicated wiring diagram that your vehicle came with so you can easily and correctly identify it. It will be a lot more convenient and easier to tap at the taillight.  

Parking Brake Wire Connections

For safety reasons, vehicles that come with a front video screen should also remain connected to the parking brake wire. This also applies to systems of gps antennas as well. The more technologically advanced a navigation functionality is, the more unusable they become since they’re disabled while the vehicle would remain in motion.  

For example, you want to look for a friend and his phone number. Or that if you want to tweak your phone settings, you won’t be able to carry it out unless you pull over first. Only then that you will gain access to it one more time. In some cases, a foot brake connection is needed here.

Industrial Engineering Technology

What Does the Future Hold for Water Jet Machine Manufacturers?

According to water jet machine manufacturers, the early generation of waterjets can cut through soft materials very easily. However, they are not as effective when working on harder materials, and that includes metals. Water jet cutting machines started having this capability only after the idea of adding abrasive material to the cutting nozzle was thought of.

The technology of adding abrasive material to the waterjet cutting machine nozzle was pioneered by Leslie Tirrell and Elmo Smith in the 1930s. Back then, the service life of an abrasive waterjet nozzle was too short. Hence, they were obviously not viable back then. For that reason, mass producing it was not a practical idea and was thus shelved for quite some time.

The plan for mass production was only relaunched only after several material innovations came to surface by virtue of mixing tubes. The production of the commercially acceptable nozzle was initiated by Boride Corporation.

By fusing high-pressure pump and abrasive waterjet nozzle, water jet cutting machines are now made better than ever. They can now handle cutting through a wide spectrum of materials, including titanium, glass, stone and even hardened tool steel.

Nowadays, water jet cutting is considered by industry experts and insiders as among the leading cutting technologies we have in this modern time and age. The acceptance and level of popularity of the waterjet manufacturers and business sectors for this method of cutting have finally qualified it as the go-to choice for many.

While this technology has undergone several innovations and improvements in the past, the silver lining question here is where is it leading us to?


Compared to how it was back then when waterjet cutting machines were first introduced to the world, it has become a lot faster. This was after it was made to deliver higher water pressure via the machine’s cutting head.

Water pressure through the cutting head can reach up to 87, 00 PSI. This is water delivered to at least 4 times the sound speed. Over time, it is anticipated that this speed we now have will still go further and faster.

Nonetheless, it should be noted that speed gains may not happen through water pressure anymore. Instead, further improvements will focus more on design and software upgrades.


Right this very moment, water jet cutting is already leading the way. It is capable of cutting through depths 10 times more than what a laser cutter does.

By virtue of increased water pressure, it would still be possible for it to cut deeper still. In a few years, perhaps we can make a seamless cut on metal that is half a meter’s depth.

Cutting Complex Parts

By far this can be considered as the biggest milestone in recent years. Water jets can now cut parts beyond the basic 2-dimensional cut we see.

XD cutting is now made possible through water jet cutters. It is a cutting head, capable of moving on multiple axes. This also signifies that it can cut complex 3-dimensional parts and that it can be carried in just one, singular strike. It is contrary to what you do in secondary cuts, which are time-consuming and costly, too.

The XD cutting technology is usually employed by the likes of formula one teams and Boeing. These industries require complex metal parts for their machinery, and they need to be done in the most accurate way possible.

There is more coming to this area, and it is anticipated that it will grow even further. Water jet cutting machines that are made capable of cutting more complex parts, more detailed and at a quicker pace.

Besides, industry experts are agreeing with each other that there will be a greater level of awareness about this technology. Business organizations will see this technology can save them both time and money on their metal cutting requirements.

Industrial Engineering Technology

How is a Water Jet Cutting Machine Different from Laser Cutting?

It is surprising to know that many people today are still unaware of how efficient water jet cutting machines are. The working idea behind this popular material cutting method was inspired by how a waterfall wears away rock formations at the bottom of a deep ravine. Only that it is done in warp speeds, and executed with greater emphasis on precision.

The Power of Water Jet Cutting Machine

To further intensify the cutting power of a waterjet cutter, the pressurized water used for these cutting machines can be mixed with abrasive particles. Typically used for this purpose are aluminum oxide and garnets.

As for the cutting force of water jet cutting machine, it can reach a maximum power of 60,000 psi. This explains the reason why this material cutting method is most recommended and preferred for projects that involve cutting of thicker material objects where the use of laser cutting method may not be very feasible at all, or would just run the risk of giving poor quality cut.

Some of the most common reasons why a significant number of metal fabrication centers in the country are shifting or patronizing the use of waterjet machines are due to the following: 

It can be used when working on thicker materials, including patterns that come with large tolerances.

They are trying to veer away from heat interference due to laser transferring its heat to the materials being cut. At high risk here are patterns that are so close to each other.

Waterjet cutting allows your metals to lay flat throughout the entire cutting process. In the laser cutting method, there are instances that you need to know how to put them at the right level.

Their team is involved or deals with an array of different materials. Waterjets earned a good reputation in cutting through stone, ceramic, steel, reflective metals, and many others.  

Laser Cutting

Laser cutting machines are in high demand these days, even from the very first day they were introduced to the market and we attribute this to their high level of precision. They also gained wide acceptance among various industries because they cut your materials fast.

But if there is one major setback you can complain about this method of cutting, it is the fact that you are limited to cutting only ⅝ of thickness. Beyond this level of thickness, it is hard to maintain an exceptional quality of cut.

Today’s software applications allow you to send a CAD file to the laser computer. After which you can begin cutting materials for your project within seconds. Many fabrication shops in the country are employing this method to help address their prototyping needs.

Laser cutting machines come with a stackable material tower which makes them ideal for big production runs. Many companies execute long, overnight cutting runs. They also leave these cutting machines unattended. 

Major Differences of Water Jet Cutting Machine and Laser Cutter Devices

Laser Cutting VS Water Jet

Infrared Light and gas laserEnergy and SourceWater and high-pressure pump
8 x (4 -20’) x 6.5’Standard Table Size8 x (4-13’) x 6.5’
Sheet MetalCommon Cut MaterialsStone, ceramics, thick metal
0.31” to 0.4”0.06”Economical ThicknessMinimum Hole Size0.250” to 2”0.02”